Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Engineering: Information Modeling ~: Pronouns - why do we care?

Pronouns - why do we care?

If you ever get a chance to work with a client to develop information models for the client's business, pronouns are watchwords that cannot be modeled as facts. However, pronouns do point to the facts and can be used to discover the facts. Pronouns do provide a view of the facts. "send them a bill" "when will it start"

Information modeling is an activity everybody does. From birth to death, our mind constructs information models of our personal world. Everybody's information model is unique. No other person has one's information model. The senses provide the gateway allowing world information to engage with the brain and mind.

Language is an expression of people's information models. Words are the seeds of thought.

The nine types of pronouns indicate the person's internal reference to something else.  It is a fact that pronouns identify something else. but not the actual fact to be modeled. From an information modeling perspective, pronouns are predicates that indicate some type of relationship.

The types of pronouns are types of relationships:

Subjective - Taking place within the mind.
Object - a material thing that can be seen and touched.
Possessive - demanding someone's total attention
Reflexive - directed or turned back on itself
Intensive - highly concentrated
Indefinite - designating an unidentified
Demonstrative - real or true
Relative -  connected with another
Archaic - something from an earlier period

https://www.thefreedictionary.com/List-of-pronouns.htm

List known pronouns
The Free Dictionary Blog > There are more than 100 pronouns.

A list of pronouns, plus definitions for each type of pronoun. Scroll to the end for a full pronouns list.


What is a pronoun?

Pronouns are some of the most useful words in the English language. They are used in the place of a noun to avoid it having to be named twice. For example, Suzy threw the boomerang and it came back to her. In this sentence, "it" is a pronoun that represents the boomerang, and "her" is a pronoun that refers to Suzy. Without pronouns, we'd have to say Suzy threw the boomerang and the boomerang came back to Suzy. Without pronouns, how would we even say "we"?
Here's the full definition.

Definition of Pronoun

In English, the part of speech used as a substitute for an antecedent noun that is clearly understood, and with which it agrees in person, number, and gender. Pronouns are classified as personal (I, we, you, he, she, it, they), demonstrative (this, these, that, those), relative (who, which, that, as), indefinite (each, all, everyone, either, one, both, any, such, somebody), interrogative (who, which, what), reflexive (myself, herself), possessive (mine, yours, his, hers, theirs). There are also pronominal adjectives, sometimes called possessive adjectives (my, your, his, her, our, their).

1. Personal Pronouns / Subject Pronouns

You already know subject pronouns, even if you didn't know that's what they were called. Subject pronouns are used to replace the subject in a sentence. You might also see them called "personal" pronouns, as they designate the person speaking (I, me, we, us), the person spoken to (you), or the person or thing spoken about (he, she, it, they, him, her, them). The following commonly used words are subject pronouns:
  • I
  • we
  • you (singular and plural)
  • he
  • she
  • it
  • they

Personal pronoun examples

I will be leaving soon.
You are welcome.
She is the new teacher.
He speaks three languages.
They are very friendly neighbors.

2. Object Pronouns

Object pronouns are used as the object of a verb or a preposition.
  • me
  • us
  • you (singular and plural)
  • her
  • him
  • it
  • them

Object pronoun examples

They offered me a ride. ("Me" is the object of the verb "offered.")
This letter is addressed to me. ("Me" is the object of the preposition "to.")
They gave us free tickets to the show. ("Us" is the object of the verb "gave.")

3. Possessive Pronouns

A possessive pronoun designates ownership and can substitute for noun phrases.
  • mine
  • ours
  • yours (singular and plural)
  • hers
  • his
  • theirs

Possessive pronoun examples

The green gloves are mine.
That cat is hers.
The red house is theirs.

Possessive Adjectives / Pronominal Adjectives

"Pronominal" describes something that resembles a pronoun, as by specifying a person, place, or thing, while functioning primarily as another part of speech. A pronominal adjective is an adjective that resembles a pronoun. "Her" in "her car" is a pronominal adjective.
  • my
  • our
  • your
  • her
  • his
  • their

4. Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns might be the easiest group to remember because they all have one thing in common: the ending "self" or "selves." That's because reflexive pronouns show how the actions of an aforementioned person or group affects him or her (or them).
  • myself
  • yourself
  • herself
  • himself
  • itself
  • ourselves
  • yourselves
  • themselves

Reflexive pronoun examples

I bought myself a new car.
That man thinks a great deal of himself.
We may be deceiving ourselves.

5. Intensive Pronouns

Intensive and reflexive pronouns are actually the exact same words (ending with "self" or "selves"), but they function differently in a sentence. Intensive pronouns not only refer back to a previously mentioned person or people, but they also emphasize. As their name suggests, they intensify.
  • myself
  • yourself
  • herself
  • himself
  • itself
  • ourselves
  • yourselves
  • themselves

Intensive pronoun examples

myself was certain of the facts.
The trouble is in the machine itself.
The cooks themselves eat after all the guests have finished.

6. Indefinite Pronouns

As the word "indefinite" suggests, these pronouns do not specify the identity of their referents. They are more vague than other pronouns.
  • all
  • another
  • any
  • anybody
  • anyone
  • anything
  • both
  • each
  • either
  • everybody
  • everyone
  • everything
  • few
  • many
  • most
  • neither
  • nobody
  • none
  • no one
  • nothing
  • one
  • other
  • others
  • several
  • some
  • somebody
  • someone
  • something
  • such

Indefinite pronouns examples

Both were candidates.
No one is home.
Several of the workers went home sick.

7. Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns specify a particular person or thing.
  • such
  • that
  • these
  • this
  • those

Demonstrative pronouns examples

I don't much care for these.
Who's that?
Such are the fortunes of war.

8. Interrogative Pronouns

This group of pronouns question which individual referent or referents are intended by the rest of the sentence.
  • what
  • whatever
  • which
  • whichever
  • who
  • whoever
  • whom
  • whomever
  • whose

Interrogative pronoun examples

Who left?
Which of these is yours?
Do whatever you please.

9. Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns introduce a dependent clause and refer to an antecedent (simply the word or phrase to which a pronoun refers). For instance, who in the child who is wearing a hat or that in the house that you live in.
  • as
  • that
  • what
  • whatever
  • which
  • whichever
  • who
  • whoever
  • whom
  • whomever
  • whose

Relative pronoun examples

The car that has a flat tire needs to be towed.
The visitor who came yesterday left his phone number.
Do whatever you like.

10. Archaic Pronouns

There are several pronouns that have fallen out of common usage but appear frequently in older texts, so there is still a good chance that you will encounter them. "Thee" is an old word for "you" used only when addressing one person, while "thy" is an old word for "your." "Thine" indicates the one or ones belonging to thee.
  • thou
  • thee
  • thy
  • thine
  • ye

Archaic pronoun examples

Thou shalt not kill.
With this ring, I thee wed.
Thy name is more hateful than thy face.
To thine own self be true.

List of all pronouns

A full list of every word that can be considered a pronoun or pronominal adjective:
  • all
  • another
  • any
  • anybody
  • anyone
  • anything
  • as
  • aught
  • both
  • each
  • each other
  • either
  • enough
  • everybody
  • everyone
  • everything
  • few
  • he
  • her
  • hers
  • herself
  • him
  • himself
  • his
  • I
  • idem
  • it
  • its
  • itself
  • many
  • me
  • mine
  • most
  • my
  • myself
  • naught
  • neither
  • no one
  • nobody
  • none
  • nothing
  • nought
  • one
  • one another
  • other
  • others
  • ought
  • our
  • ours
  • ourself
  • ourselves
  • several
  • she
  • some
  • somebody
  • someone
  • something
  • somewhat
  • such
  • suchlike
  • that
  • thee
  • their
  • theirs
  • theirself
  • theirselves
  • them
  • themself
  • themselves
  • there
  • these
  • they
  • thine
  • this
  • those
  • thou
  • thy
  • thyself
  • us
  • we
  • what
  • whatever
  • whatnot
  • whatsoever
  • whence
  • where
  • whereby
  • wherefrom
  • wherein
  • whereinto
  • whereof
  • whereon
  • wherever
  • wheresoever
  • whereto
  • whereunto
  • wherewith
  • wherewithal
  • whether
  • which
  • whichever
  • whichsoever
  • who
  • whoever
  • whom
  • whomever
  • whomso
  • whomsoever
  • whose
  • whosever
  • whosesoever
  • whoso
  • whosoever
  • ye
  • yon
  • yonder
  • you
  • your
  • yours
  • yourself
  • yourselves

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